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Mendonca DA, McCafferty I, Nishikawa H, Lester R. Venous malformations in limbs: Birmingham experience, comparisons and classification in children (Birmingham classification) J Plastic Reconstructive Aesthetic Surgery 2010; 63,3: 383-389.
The management of vascular anomalies in upper and lower limbs is complex. The current practice at Birmingham Children's Hospital is based on a multidisciplinary approach, involving plastic surgeons, interventional radiologists, vascular surgeons, dermatologists and laser specialists. This study reviews the management strategies for peripheral venous malformations (VMs) and proposes a simple classification system to aid treatment.